Special Topic Issue: Blood Purification 2009, Vol. 27, No. 1 The volumes in this series are published annually on the occasion of the International Conference on Dialysis organized by the Renal Research Institute, New York, in cooperation with the ISN, ISPD, NKF and RPA. Among the topics discussed in the current issue are recent developments in dialysis, dialysate and vascular access; vasopressin receptor antagonists in heart failure; the interaction between aldosterone and the extracellular fluid volume in CKD; the management of cardiac disease in the dialysis patient; the cardiorenal syndrome; the use of bioimpedance for volume control in CKD; internal filtration hemodialysis; reduction of hepatitis C viral load by extracorporeal therapy; measurement and significance of bacterial DNA in water and dialysate; temporal evolution of events pre-death in dialysis patients; prenatal causes of kidney disease; current approaches to the critically ill; and lipid metabolism in CKD and its practical implications. Identifying relevant controversial issues as well as areas of recent progress with regard to disease processes or treatment, this publication is a helpful reference tool for both clinicians and basic investigators involved in CKD.